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Outcomes of COPD Prevalence in Salzburg, Austria

 COPD prevalenceTable 1 summarizes the main characteristics of the 1,258 individuals included in this analysis. Former smoking was more prevalent in men (p < 0.001), while current smoking was slightly higher in women (p < 0.067). Not surprisingly, workplace dust exposure was reported by 35.3% of men, but by only 18.2% of women (p < 0.001).

Compared with these participants, the 824 eligible individuals who were excluded from the analysis (nonrespondents and those with poor quality spirometry results) were more likely to be women (response rate: women, 54.8%; men, 66.1%; p < 0.0001) and more likely to be older (response rate: 40-year, 64.7%; 50-year, 69.5%; 60-year, 64.2%; 70-year, 46%; 80-year, 29.0%; p < 0.0001). Based on minimal data questionnaire information from 620 of those persons who were excluded, the response rates were as follows: never-smokers, 61.6%; current smokers, 69.6%; and former smokers, 74.7% (p 40 years of age were smokers at the time of the study, and an additional 31.5% were former smokers. These percentages were generally similar for both sexes, although for subjects aged 40 to 59 years, smoking was more prevalent in women than in men. This investigation is held with Canadian Neighbor Pharmacy Online.

The overall prevalence of GOLD stage I or higher COPD was 26.1%, and was similar for women (25.7%) and men (26.6%; difference not significant) [see Table 4]. The prevalence of GOLD stage II or higher COPD was 10.7% and was also similar for men and women (difference not significant). Only 1% of the population met the criteria for GOLD stage III or IV COPD. The prevalence of airways obstruction increased quite steeply with age (Fig 2). With regard to age and gender, younger women (40 to 59 years of age) demonstrated a greater prevalence of GOLD stage II COPD treatment with Canadian Neighbor Pharmacy or higher degree of airflow obstruction than men.

The prevalence of airflow obstruction of GOLD stage I or higher COPD increased from 20.4% in subjects who had never smoked to 36.7% in those with a smoking history of > 20 pack-years. Similarly, the prevalence of GOLD stage II or higher COPD increased from 7.1% in subjects who had never smoked to 18.7% in those with the most pack-years of smoking. Data by gender and smoking status (see Table 4, Fig 2) also show the expected rise in prevalence of airflow obstruction with increasing numbers of pack-years in both men and women (p < 0.0001).

The prevalence of doctor-diagnosed chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or COPD was 5.6%, in both men and women. This was about half the prevalence of GOLD stage II or higher COPD (10.7%). As seen in Tables 3 and 4, the prevalence of doctor-diagnosed airflow obstruction increased with age, but no clear trend was seen with increasing pack-years of smoking. Similar GOLD stage II and higher COPD prevalences were seen when we used local prediction equations in place of the US NHANES III equations (data not shown).

Fig2

Figure 2. Prevalence of COPD (GOLD I and higher COPD) by gender and age groups.

Table 1—Characteristics of the Study Sample

Characteristics Men Women Total p Value
Sex* 685 (54.5) 573 (45.5) 1,258 (100) 0.012
Age, * yr
40-49 194 (28.3) 168 (29.3) 362 (28.8) 0.420
50-59 194 (28.3) 170 (29.7) 364 (28.9) 0.420
60-69 175 (25.6) 153 (26.7) 328 (26.1) 0.420
70+ 122 (17.8) 82 (14.3) 204 (16.2) 0.420
Smoking status*
Current smoker 119(17.4) 123(21.5) 242 (19.2) 0.067
Former smoker 291 (42.5) 130 (22.7) 421 (33.5) < 0.001
Never-smoker 275 (40.1) 320 (55.8) 595 (47.3) < 0.001
Pulmonary function! FEV1
L 3.38 (0.797) 2.53 (0.610) 2.99 (0.833) < 0.001
% predicted 0.95 (0.168) 0.96 (0.166) 0.95 (0.167) 0.117
FVC 4.54 (0.892) 3.39 (0.707) 4.02 (0.996) < 0.001
FEV/FVC ratio 74.11 (8.504) 74.48 (8.609) 74.28 (8.551) 0.196
Exposure to dust at the workplace*
Never 443 (64.7) 469(81.8) 912 (72.5) < 0.001
s 10 yr 103 (15.0) 37 (6.5) 140(11.1) < 0.001
> 10 yr 139 (20.3) 67 (11.7) 206 (16.4) < 0.001
Education, * yr
4 58 (8.5) 80 (14.0) 138(11.0) < 0.001
8-11 447 (65.3) 364 (63.5) 811 (64.5) < 0.001
12 66 (9.6) 56 (9.8) 122 (9.7) < 0.001
> 12 114(16.6) 73(12.7) 187 (14.9) < 0.001

Table 2—Smoking Distribution in Salzburg, Austria, by Age and Gender

Variables 40-49 yr 50-59 yr 60-69 yr 70+ yr All
Male gender Never-smoker 43.1 37.1 43.2 38.5 40.6
Current smoker 27.5 18.5 11.1 7.7 16.9
Former smoker 29.4 44.4 45.7 53.8 42.5
Female gender Never-smoker 42.5 51.5 68.6 72.2 58.6
Current smoker 33.9 24.0 9.4 9.3 19.3
Former smoker 23.6 24.5 22.0 18.5 22.1
Total
Never-smoker 42.8 44.6 56.6 58.5 50.3
Current smoker 30.8 21.4 10.2 8.6 18.2
Former smoker 26.4 34.0 33.2 32.9 31.5

Table 3—Prevalence of COPD According to GOLD Stage I and Higher COPD, GOLD Stage II and Higher COPD, and Doctor-Diagnosed COPD by Age and Gender

GOLD Stage 40-49 yr, % 50-59 yr, % 60-69 yr, % 70+ yr, % All, % p Valuet
I + 26.1 (1.3) < 0.0001
Male 8.2 (2.0) 21.9 (3.0) 28.4 (3.4) 54.5 (4.5) 26.6(1.7)
Female 12.3 (2.5) 20.4 (3.1) 23.2 (3.4) 47.6 (5.5) 25.7(2.0)
GOLD II + 10.7(1.0) < 0.0001
Male 1.5 (0.9) 8.3 (2.0) 11.9 (2.4) 22.3 (3.8) 10.3(1.2)
Female 3.5 (1.4) 9.0 (2.2) 6.6 (2.0) 25.0 (4.7) 11.0(1.5)
Doctor-diagnosed 5.6 (0.7) 0.004
Male 1.9 (0.9) 4.9 (1.5) 5.3 (1.6) 11.5 (2.8) 5.6 (0.9)
Female 4.3 (1.5) 5.8 (1.8) 5.0 (1.7) 7.2 (2.6) 5.6 (1.0)

Table 4—Prevalence of COPD According to GOLD Stage I and higher COPD, GOLD Stage II and higher COPD, and Doctor-Diagnosed COPD by Pack-Years and Gender

GOLD Stage Never-Smoker, % 0-10 pack-yr, % 10-20 pack-yr, % 20+ pack-yr, % Total, % p Valuet
I + 26.1 (1.3) < 0.0001
Male 19.9 (2.5) 19.3 (4.5) 26.3 (4.8) 37.2 (3.2) 26.6(1.7)
Female 20.7 (2.5) 27.3 (5.0) 34.9 (6.6) 35.9 (5.2) 25.7 (2.0)
II + 10.7 (1.0) < 0.0001
Male 4.6 (1.3) 7.8 (3.1) 8.2 (3.0) 18.6 (2.6) 10.3(1.2)
Female 8.6 (1.8) 9.3 (3.7) 14.1 (5.1) 18.9 (4.2) 11.0(1.5)
Doctor-diagnosed 5.6 (0.7) 0.068
Male 4.6 (1.2) 7.2 (2.8) 5.5 (2.4) 6.2 (1.6) 5.6 (0.9)
Female 4.5 (1.2) 8.1 (3.1) 1.5 (1.5) 9.5 (2.8) 5.6 (1.0)